32 Research-Based Instructional Strategies

1. Setting Objectives

2. Reinforcing Effort/Providing Recognition

3. Cooperative Learning

4. Cues, Questions & Advance Organizers

5. Nonlinguistic Representations (see Teaching With Analogies)

6. Summarizing & Note Taking

7. Identifying Similarities and Differences

8. Generating & Testing Hypotheses

9. Instructional Planning Using the Nine Categories of Strategies

10. Rewards based on a specific performance standard (Wiersma 1992)

11. Homework for later grades (Ross 1998) with minimal parental involvement (Balli 1998) with a clear purpose (Foyle 1985)

12. Direct Instruction

13. Scaffolding Instruction

14. Provide opportunities for student practice

15. Individualized Instruction

16. Inquiry-Based Teaching (see 20 Questions To Guide Inquiry-Based Learning)

17. Concept Mapping

18. Reciprocal Teaching

19. Promoting student metacognition (see 5o Questions That Promote Metacognition In Students)

20. Developing high expectations for each student

21. Providing clear and effective learning feedback (see 13 Concrete Examples Of Effective Learning Feedback)

22. Teacher clarity (learning goals, expectations, content delivery, assessment results, etc.)

23. Setting goals or objectives (Lipset & Wilson 1993)

24. Consistent, ‘low-threat’ assessment (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik 1991; Fuchs & Fuchs 1986)

25. Higher-level questioning (Redfield & Rousseau 1981) (see Questions Stems For Higher Level Discussion)

26. Learning feedback that is detailed and specific (Hattie & Temperly 2007)

27. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (Stauffer 1969)

28. Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) (Raphael 1982)

29. KWL Chart (Ogle 1986)

30. Comparison Matrix (Marzano 2001)

31. Anticipation Guides (Buehl 2001)

32. Response Notebooks (Readence, Moore, Rickelman, 2002)